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The handy geography answer book - Paul A. Tucci


Year 2009

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AcknowledgmentsIntroductionDEFINING THE WORLDDEFINITIONS AND HISTORY What does the word "geography" mean?Who invented geography?What is geologic time?What is the AAG?What is the NCGE?What is the National Geographic Society?What do modern geographers do?THE EARTHHow old is the Earth?What is the circumference of the Earth?Is the Earth a perfect sphere?What is a hemisphere?What are the Arctic and Antarctic Circles?If the Earth is so large, why did Columbus think that India was close enough to reach by sailing west from Europe?How fast does the Earth spin?Why don't we feel the Earth moving?Does the Earth spin at a constant rate?What is the axis of the Earth?What is inside the Earth?If I dug through the Earth, would I end up in China?What is the mid-Atlantic ridge?What is subduction?What is the North Magnetic Pole?CONTINENTS AND ISLANDS What are continents?What is the largest continent?What is a subcontinent?What was Pangea?What is the world's largest island?Why is Greenland considered an island while Australia is a continent?What is an archipelago?What is a strait?HIGH, LOW, BIG, SMALL, AND WONDROUSWhat is the lowest point in the world on land?What is the lowest point on dry land?What are the lowest points on each continent?What is the highest point in the world?Is Mt. Everest growing taller?What are the highest points on each continent?What is the highest mountain on Earth?What are the deepest points in the oceans?Where is the farthest point from land?Where is the farthest point from an ocean?What were the seven wonders of the ancient world?What are the seven wonders of the modern world?What are the seven natural wonders of the world?HUMAN CIVILIZATION When did agriculture begin?Where did agriculture begin?What is the difference between cultivation and domestication?When was the second agricultural revolution?What was the industrial revolution?What is the green revolution?How much of the world's population is devoted to agriculture?How were animals first domesticated?PEOPLE AND COUNTRIESWhat is the largest country in the world?How many people live on the planet?Which 10 countries have the most people?How many people are projected to live on the planet in 2040?Why is the growth rate declining?What top five countries will have the largest populations in 2050?Which country has the longest coast line?Which countries have the fewest neighbors?Which non-island nations have the fewest neighbors?How does a city get chosen to host the Olympics?How is a capital different from a capitol?What did the average European know about the world in the Middle Ages?Where is the third world?What is the largest landlocked country in the world?What countries have the most Internet usage?Which countries restrict Internet access to what is deemed unfavorable content by their governments?What is geographic illiteracy?What is the National Geographic-Roper Public Affairs Geographic Literacy Study?What were the results of the 2006 National Geographic-Roper Public Affairs Geographic Literacy Study?MAPSHISTORY AND INSTRUMENTS What were the earliest maps?What makes a piece of paper a map?What is a good way to learn where places are?Why is a book of maps called an atlas?How do cartographers shape our world?Who would purposely create false maps?Who decides which names go on maps?How can maps be used to start wars?What other countries have disputes over lines drawn on maps?How does a sextant help navigators?When was the compass invented?Have compasses always pointed north?What is a compass rose?What is an azimuth?How, why, and how much does Magnetic North move?How much has the magnetic north pole moved?How old is the oldest known map?What is the oldest map using the word America?What is the oldest known map drawn to scale?Where is the equator?LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE What are latitude and longitude lines?Are lines of longitude and latitude all the same length?How wide is a degree of longitude?How wide is a degree of latitude?What do minutes and seconds have to do with longitude and latitude?Which comes first, latitude or longitude?Why was computing longitude so difficult?How can I remember which way latitude and longitude run?How can a gazetteer help me find latitude and longitude?How can I find the latitude and longitude of a particular place?Why was the Prime Meridian established at Greenwich?READING AND USING MAPS What is the difference between a physical and a political map?What is a topographic map?Why are road maps so difficult to fold?Why is color important on a relief map?What does the scale of a map tell me?How can I determine the distance between two places by using a scale?What is the difference between small and large scale maps?Why is every map distorted?Why does Greenland appear larger on most maps than it actually is?How can a legend help me read a map?Why is there often a cross next to the east direction on maps?Where can I buy maps?But what if I can't find the map I'm looking for?What is the difference between relative and absolute location?MODERN MAPPING What are satellites photographing?How have satellites changed map making?How much junk is there in space?How has GIS revolutionized cartography?How can GIS help my town?How does a GPS unit know where I am?How can GPS keep me from getting lost?THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTTHE EARTH'S MATERIALS AND INTERNAL PROCESSESHow thick is the Earth's crust?What is continental drift?How many tectonic plates are there?What was Pangea?How are mountains formed?How did the Himalayas form?What type of rocks are formed by lava?What type of rocks are formed from particles?What are recycled rocks?Which is larger, clay or sand?What are hot springs?Where are hot springs used by people around the world?Why does the ground sink?Why do houses fall into sinkholes?NATURAL RESOURCES What is a renewable resource?What is a perpetual resource?What are fossil fuels?What is a fossil?LANDSCAPES AND ECOSYSTEMS What are basins and ranges?What is permafrost?Is the permafrost thawing?Why is permafrost so important?How much of the Earth's surface is frozen?What is a jungle?What is a rain forest?What is a tropical rain forest?Where is the northernmost rain forest?What is a desert?What was the highest temperature ever recorded?Do oases really exist?How do sand dunes move?What causes erosion?What does a glacier leave behind?What is a tree line?How high is tree line?How do forest fires help forests?What is tundra?ASTEROIDS AND NEAR EARTH OBJECTS Did an asteroid kill the dinosaurs?Will another large asteroid strike the Earth?How many places on Earth have evidence of asteroid impacts?What is a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid or PHA?How many Potentially Hazardous Asteroids is NASA tracking that could impact the Earth in the twenty-first century?What is a Near Earth Object (NEO)?How many Near Earth Objects is NASA tracking?When and where was the last great impact on the Earth from a Near Earth Object?WATER AND ICEHow much of the Earth is covered by water?How much is the sea level rising?What countries are threatened the most from rising sea levels, and may cease to exist in the twenty-first century?How much land disappears when the sea level rises?How does the hydrologic cycle work?Where is all the water?What is evapotranspiration?What is an aquifer?What is the Oglala Aquifer?Why are we losing ground water?What are ice ages?What is the Coriolis effect?Does the Coriolis effect make the water in my toilet, sink, and bathtub swirl clockwise?If I keep walking in a straight line, will the Coriolis effect cause me to veer?What is the difference between a bay and a gulf?Where does the Loch Ness Monster live?How are waves created?How does Old Faithful shoot water into the air?How does water wash away the land?How much does a gallon of water weigh?How is water used in the home?What waterfall has the largest flow of water?What is the highest waterfall in the world?How does the boiling point of water help determine altitude?OCEANS AND SEAS What is the difference between an ocean and a sea?How many oceans are there?How salty is sea water?What are ocean currents?What are the largest seas?Why is the Mediterranean Sea so salty?Has the Mediterranean Sea always been there?What are the seven seas?Where are the four colored seas: Black, Yellow, Red, and White?Is the Black Sea really black?What is a desalination plant?How many desalination plants are there?Where is the biggest desalination plant in the United States?RIVERS AND LAKES What is the longest river in the world?What is the longest river in the United States?Where are the highest rivers in the world?Why are the Missouri-Mississippi Rivers lumped together?Which river carries the most water?What is a delta?What is a drainage basin?What is a tributary?What is a watershed?What is a wadi?What is a meander?What is an oxbow lake?What is the world's largest lake?Where is the highest lake in the world?PRECIPITATION How is rainfall measured?How can I measure how much rain falls where I live?Where does it rain the most?Where does it rain the least?How much water is in snow?Where was the most snowfall ever recorded?What is the difference between snow and hail?How is hail formed?How big was the largest hailstone?GLACIERS AND FJORDS What is a glacier?Are there still glaciers in the United States?How old are glaciers?Did glaciers create the Great Lakes?Are glaciers only found in cold, northern places?What is a tropical glacier?Is global warming causing the world's glaciers to melt?What are the consequences when glaciers melt?What is a fjord?From where does the word "fjord" originate?What is the highest fjord in Norway?Are all fjords found in Norway?Where is the longest fjord?CONTROLLING WATERWhat do dams do?What is the tallest dam in the world?How do farmers water their crops?How did the ancient Romans get water to their cities?Were the Romans the only civilization to develop water resources in an advanced way?Where will the biggest dam in the world be located?CLIMATEDEFINITIONS What is the difference between climate and weather?How are different types of climates classified?What is global warming?What is the effect of global warming and climate change on Earth?How did the Inca civilization experiment with climate?What are the most polluted cities in the world in terms of air quality?What are the sources of air pollution?THE ATMOSPHERE How much pressure does the atmosphere exert upon us?Why is the sky blue?How many layers are in the atmosphere?Why can I hear an AM radio station from hundreds of miles away at night but not during the day?Why don't FM radio waves travel very far?Does air pressure change with elevation?What are the different kinds of clouds?How much of the Earth is usually covered by clouds?How do airplanes create clouds?What is the greenhouse effect?What is the jet stream?OZONEWhat is the ozone layer?Is the ozone layer being depleted?How much of the ozone layer is being depleted?How do CFCs destroy ozone?CLIMATIC TRENDS Why is it very wet on one side of a mountain range?What is a rain shadow?What is El Niño?Where does the name El Niño come from?What are ice core samples and why are they important?What is continentality?What are the horse latitudes?How does land turn into desert?WEATHER How do I convert Fahrenheit to Celsius to Kelvin?What is a low high temperature and a high low temperature?What are some world weather records?What world weather records does the United States hold?Why is it more likely to rain in a city during the week than on the weekend?What does a 40 percent chance of rain really mean?Why is it hotter in the city than in the countryside?What is a thunderstorm?What is air pollution?WINDWhere does wind come from?In which direction does the west wind blow?What are the westerlies?What are monsoons?What is the origin of the word "monsoon"?What are dust devils?What is the windiest place on Earth?Is Chicago really the "windy city?"HAZARDS AND DISASTERSWhat is a hazard?Why is it important to have an out-of-state contact in case of a disaster?What is the difference between a watch and a warning?How should we prepare for disaster?Should we use candles after a disaster or power outage?What is the leading cause of disaster-related death in the United States?How can I learn more about disasters in my town?What is the best way to help after a disaster?How did a map help stop the spread of cholera?What are incidence maps?Which natural disasters doesn't Southern California experience?VOLCANOES What are volcanoes?What is the Ring of Fire?How many active volcanoes are there in the world?What are some of the world's most active volcanoes, in terms of numbers of years of eruptions?Where are the active volcanoes in the United States?What is the difference between magma and lava?How was Pompeii destroyed?EARTHQUAKESWhat causes earthquakes?What is an epicenter?What is a fault?What does an earthquake feel like?What is the significance of the San Andreas fault?Was San Francisco destroyed by earthquake or by fire in 1906?Which states are earthquake-free?Is there a high risk of earthquakes in the Midwestern United States?What should I do in the event of an earthquake?Is it safe to stand in a doorway during an earthquake?What is the Richter scale?What is the Mercalli scale?How many really big earthquakes occur each year?Is a magnitude 10 the top of the Richter scale?TSUNAMISWhat is a tsunami?How does Hawaii protect itself from tsunamis?What caused the great Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 2004?What is the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center?What is the DART array?HURRICANES What part of a hurricane is most damaging?What is a willy-willy?How fast do hurricane winds blow?How are hurricanes ranked?What was Hurricane Katrina?How many people died as a result of the subsequent failure of the levees and flooding after Hurricane Katrina struck?Was the 2005 New Orleans disaster caused by a flood or a hurricane?FLOODS How much rain does it take to make a flood?What have been some of the most destructive floods in history?What is a floodplain?What is a 100-year flood?What is the National Flood Insurance Program?How can I obtain a flood map of my community?What should I do in the event of a flood?TORNADOESWhat are tornadoes?What should I do when a tornado approaches?What is the Fujita scale of tornado intensity?Where is tornado alley?What is the most dangerous state to live in due to tornadoes?What were some of the most destructive tornadoes in U.S. history?Are there tornadoes in Europe?LIGHTNINGHow many times does lightning strike the Earth each year?How much energy does one bolt of lightning contain?What different types of lightning are there?How many people are killed in the United States by lightning?Does lightning ever strike twice in the same place?OTHER HAZARDS AND DISASTERS What is acid rain?Does radiation from a nuclear plant stop at the 10-mile (16 kilometer) zone?What happened at Three Mile Island?What is nuclear winter?What caused the Bhopal disaster?TRANSPORTATION AND URBAN GEOGRAPHYCITIES AND SUBURBSWhat is a city?What was the first city to have more than one million people?What is an urban area?How many people in the world are classified as urban dwellers?What are some of the oldest, continuously inhabited cities in the world and when were they established?Where did some of the first cities of the world begin?What is the most populated urban area in the world?What is a megalopolis?Are mega-urban area populations growing?What are the largest metropolitan areas in the United States?How does the population of Tokyo change each day?What percentage of people live in the mega cities of the world?What major American city loses more people than any other?What is a central business district?Who decides where houses can be built?When did suburbs become fashionable?What was Levittown?URBAN STRUCTURES What is the largest building in the world, in terms of usable space?What is the largest building in the world in terms of floor space?What is the largest office building in the world?What is the largest airport in the world?What is the largest church building in the world?What is the longest building in the world?What is the largest shopping mall in terms of gross leasable area?What is the tallest self-supporting structure in the world?What was the world's first skyscraper?What is the tallest skyscraper in the world?AIR TRANSPORTATIONWhat was the first airplane flown?When was the first flight achieved?What is the busiest airport in the world?How many airports are there in the United States?What is the busiest airport outside of the United States?ROADS AND RAILWAYS When were the first roads built?Do all roads really lead to Rome?What is a turnpike?What road in the United States was known as the National Road?What do the Cumberland Road and Cumberland Gap have to do with each other?What is the difference between a highway and a freeway?When was the first freeway built in the United States?What are interstate highways?Why was Eisenhower a fan of interstate highways?Why does Hawaii have interstate highways?When was the last interstate highway built?How many miles of paved road are there in the United States?Did Hitler create the Autobahn?What is the longest bridge in the world?What is the Chunnel?What is the most common street name in the United States?Where is the longest Main Street in the United States?When was the first automobile built?Which city has the most taxis?How many taxi cab drivers are there in the United States?Where was the first self-service gas station?Who invented the traffic signal?Who invented the first train?SEA TRANSPORT What is the world's busiest seaport?What does a canal lock do?In which direction do ships sail through the Panama Canal?Why was the Erie Canal built?What is the St. Lawrence Seaway?POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY How does geography influence politics?What is the difference between a country and a nation?What is the difference between a State and a state?Do all countries have states?How does a choke point "choke" a body of water?Who controls the world's oil supply?Who else controls the price of gas besides oil producers?COLONIES AND EXPANSIONISM Why did the sun never set on the British Empire?Why would countries want colonies?What were some of the earliest colonies?How did the Nazis use geopolitics?How did irredentism help start World War II?THE UNITED NATIONS How does the United Nations preserve peace?How many countries are members of the United Nations?Which countries are not members of the United Nations?Why do some countries choose not to join the United Nations?How did the League of Nations fail?NATO AND THE COLD WARWhich countries are members of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)?How did the Soviet Bloc countries respond to the creation of NATO?What is the purpose of NATO now that the Soviet Union is gone?What did the domino effect have to do with United States involvement in the Vietnam War?Who won the Cold War?THE WORLD TODAY What are the world's newest countries?How many countries does the United States recognize?Why isn't Taiwan recognized by the U.S. government?Why are some borders curvy while others are straight?Why do third world countries no longer exist?Why was the border between the Yemen and Saudi Arabia dashed on maps?What other countries have border disputes?Which countries are surrounded entirely by landlocked countries?How is gerrymandering like a salamander?What is the best shape for a country?THE WORLD ECONOMY What is the difference between GNP and GDP?Which country has the highest GDP?Which country has the highest per capita GDP?Which countries give the highest proportion of their GNP in the form of aid to other countries?Which advanced industrial democracy ranks last in giving foreign aid as calculated as a percentage of its GNP?Which country spends the most money on the military?Which country is the top exporter of goods and services?CULTURAL GEOGRAPHYPOPULATION Of all the humans who have ever lived, what proportion of them are alive today?How many people live on the Earth?What has the world's population been over time?How long did it take for the world population to double in size?Which countries lead the world in child poverty?Which country has the world's highest population density?What is a census?What was the baby boom?Are there an equal number of boy and girl babies born?How many lesbian and gay people are there in the world?LANGUAGE AND RELIGION What are the most commonly spoken languages of the world?What is the difference between a lingua franca and a pidgin?Which religions are practiced by the most people?How many religions have holy sites in Jerusalem?Why do mosques have domes?DEALING WITH HAZARDS Is childbirth still a significant cause of death for women?How did the Black Plague affect the world's population?Is there enough food to feed the world?What were Thomas Malthus' ideas on population growth?How widespread was the influenza pandemic of 1918?How does medical geography help control the spread of diseases?What revolution attempted to stop world hunger?What is a UNESCO World Heritage Site?How many refugees are there?How many people are abducted and sold into slavery each year?In the past, how many people were sold into slavery in the United States?CULTURES AROUND THE WORLD What are nomads?What is a Gypsy?What is brain drain?How do people cope with continual light or darkness in high latitudes?What is a long lot?Why do some cultures kill infants?Why don't Americans eat horse meat?How many McDonald's restaurants are there in the world?Why does a first-born son get everything?Can a woman have multiple husbands?When did people start eating with forks and spoons?What is the most common last name in the world?TIME, CALENDARS, AND SEASONSWhy did early humans have no need for hours, days, weeks, or months?What time is it at 12:00 a.m.?What do a.m. and p.m. mean?How does military time work?How long is a day?Does the Earth always rotate and revolve around the sun at the same speed?How can I find the exact time?TIME ZONES When were time zones established in the United States?How did trains help establish time zones?How many time zones does the United States have?Which states are split into multiple time zones?Are all countries divided into one-hour time zones?How many time zones does China have?What time is it at the North and South Poles?What happens when I cross the International Date Line?How fast do you have to travel west to arrive earlier than when you left?Why is Russia always one hour ahead?DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME Why do we have Daylight Saving Time?When did Daylight Saving Time move from the end to the beginning of April in the United States?When do countries in the Southern Hemisphere observe Daylight Saving Time?KEEPING TIMEWhat is a sundial?When were the first clocks made?What is a water clock?When was the first watch made?What is an atomic clock?CALENDARS What do b.c. and a.d. stand for?What do b.c.e. and c.e. stand for?What is the problem with a calendar based on the cycles of the moon?How did Julius Caesar fix the calendar?When was January 1 chosen as the beginning of the year?Why were 10 days lost from the year in 1582?What is the Gregorian calendar?When was the Gregorian calendar adopted in the United States?Is the Gregorian calendar accurate?What type of calendar did the French use between 1793 and 1806?What type of calendar was used in the Soviet Union between 1929 and 1940?Which celestial bodies are the days of the week named after?When did the twenty-first century begin?THE SEASONS How does the tilt of the Earth affect the seasons?Where on the planet is it light 24 hours a day in the summer?What are the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn?What are the solstices?Can you stand an egg on end only on the spring equinox?What are the equinoxes?Where are the Arctic and Antarctic Circles?EXPLORATIONEUROPE AND ASIA Who were the earliest explorers from Asia?When did the Chinese Empire begin naval exploration?Who disguised himself as a Muslim to travel to Mecca?What were Marco Polo's contributions to exploration?What did Marco Polo note in his journals about the Chinese fleet, when he arrived in the thirteenth century?Which explorer was named the Grand Imperial Eunuch by the Emperor of China?Who was Alexander von Humboldt?How early were the islands of the Pacific explored?Who was the greatest explorer of the Arab world?What did Genghis Khan conquer?Who was Prester John?When did Phoenician explorers begin discovering and colonizing Europe?What were the Crusades?AFRICAWho discovered the source of the Nile River?Whose body was preserved and then hand-carried for nine months to the coast of Africa?Who was Captain Kidd?THE NEW WORLDWho was the first European to reach North America?Who was Ponce de Leon?Who was the first European to see the Pacific Ocean from its eastern shore?What is the Strait of Magellan?What was the intent of Magellan's Expedition?Why is Christopher Columbus credited with discovering the New World?Did everyone during Christopher Columbus's time think that the world was flat?What did the Mason-Dixon line originally divide?Who was Vancouver, Canada, named after?What were Lewis and Clark looking for?Who was John Wesley Powell?How did America get its name?What did James Cook not discover?How fast did the Mayflower sail?What is a nautical mile?What monetary unit is used in Panama?THE POLESWho was the first person to reach the North Pole?Who was the first person to reach the South Pole?Who was one of the great African American explorers?UNITED STATES OF AMERICAPHYSICAL FEATURES AND RESOURCES Where is the center of the contiguous United States?What is the highest point in the United States?What is the highest point east of the Mississippi?What is the highest lake in North America?What is the deepest lake in the United States?What is the largest island in the United States?Where is the world's largest marsh?Where is the world's largest mountain?How many Great Lakes are there?What is the largest freshwater lake in the world?What is the world's shortest river?Why is Coney Island called an island even though it's not?THE STATES What are the five largest states?What are the five smallest states?What are the five most populous U.S. states?What are the five least populous U.S. states?Which state has the most lakes?How many states have four-letter names?How many state names end in the letter "a"?How many islands does Hawaii include?Which Hawaiian island was once a leper colony?Which state has the highest divorce rate?What do the Sandwich Islands and Hawaiian Islands have in common?What is the only state with a diamond mine?What is the driest state?What is the official neckwear of Arizona?Which state borders only one other state?Which state borders the most others?Which state has the longest coastline?What state has only one legislative body?How many states have land north of Canada's southernmost point?Is Puerto Rico a state?CITIES AND COUNTIES How many cities are in the United States?Measured by area, what is the largest city in the United States?What are the fastest growing U.S. cities in terms of population growth from 2000 to 2006?How much did the population of New Orleans decline after Hurricane Katrina struck?What cities have the most crime in the United States?What are the northernmost, southernmost, easternmost, and westernmost cities in the United States?What is the highest settlement in the United States?What is the oldest continually occupied city in the United States?Which is further west—Los Angeles, California, or Reno, Nevada?What city is named for a game show?What city is known as the Earthquake City?Where does Los Angeles get its water?How many counties are in the United States?What are the largest and smallest counties in the United States?PEOPLE AND CULTUREWhat is the population of the United States?Where do most legal immigrants to the United States come from?How many illegal immigrants are there in the United States?Where do the illegal immigrants come from?What is the oldest college in the United States?How valuable is a college education in the United States?How many educational institutions are there in the United States?How many foreign students attend universities and colleges in the United States?How many Internet users are there in the United States?What percentage of American households regularly give to charitable organizations?What percentage of Americans volunteer each year?What is the most popular national park in the United States?What is the oldest public park in the United States?What is the most popular theme park in the United States?Where was the world's first monument to an insect established?How many automobiles are there in the United States?Where was the first commercial air flight?Where is the sunbelt?Where is the rustbelt?Where is the Bible Belt?Who carved Mt. Rushmore?Why was there a Russian outpost in California?What is the oldest continuously published newspaper in the United States?Where was the first shopping mall in the United States?How many businesses are started each year in the United States?What is the leading cause of death in the United States?Where is Acadiana?Why are graves above the ground in Louisiana?HISTORY How did the United States reach its present form?What was Manifest Destiny?What were Lewis and Clark looking for?What was Seward's Folly?When was the most territory added to the United States at one time?Aside from the Louisiana Purchase, how was the American West obtained?What was the Oregon Trail?How many Native American tribes are there in the United States?How many Native Americans were killed during the period of European colonization in the Americas?How many Native American reservations are there in the United States?What was the Trail of Tears?When was the first permanent British settlement established in the United States?How did the Monroe Doctrine protect the Americas?How many countries has the U.S. military attacked or occupied since the beginning of the year 2000?How did the United States obtain the Virgin Islands?NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICAWhat is the center of North America?What's NAFTA?Has NAFTA helped trade between Canada, Mexico, and the United States?What is the continental divide?GREENLAND AND THE NORTH POLE REGIONIs Greenland really green?How thick is Greenland's ice sheet?What is the northernmost landmass in the world?Is there land at the North Pole?How big is the area of the North Pole ice region?Is global warming melting the North Pole?How many indigenous people live in the Arctic?CANADA How many provinces are in Canada?Where are the Prairie Provinces?What is Nunavut?What are the largest Canadian urban areas?When did Canada have a transcontinental railway?How is northern Canada gaining elevation?Why do they speak French in Québec?What did the phrase "fifty-four forty or fight" mean?What is the deepest lake in North America?How long are the Rockies?How was Niagara Falls stopped?What was the Klondike Gold Rush?MEXICO What was the first major city in the Western Hemisphere?Where are Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental?How many states are in Mexico?Where is the Yucatan?How much of Mexico's population lives in Mexico City?How do maquiladoras help clothe the United States?How much does an employee of a maquiladora earn?CENTRAL AMERICAWhat is the difference between Central and Latin America?What was the last Central American country to obtain its independence?Are there lots of mosquitoes on the Mosquito Coast?Who owns the Panama Canal?Who is a peon?What is the world's second-longest barrier reef?THE WEST INDIES Where are the East and West Indies?Where are the Windward Islands?Where are the Leeward Islands?Was Cuba ever a part of the United States?How did Cuba become a Communist country?Where is the Bay of Pigs?Where is the oldest church in the Americas?Do things really disappear in the Bermuda Triangle?What was the first independent country in the Caribbean?How many people visit the Caribbean each year?SOUTH AMERICAPHYSICAL FEATURES AND RESOURCES Which is farther east, Santiago, Chile, or Miami, Florida?Which river carries more water than any other in the world?What are the Andes?What are the four climatic regions of the Andes?What is the highest navigable lake in the world?Where is the world's tallest waterfall?What is the Atacama desert?Who owns Easter Island?Is the Strait of Magellan crooked?What is the world's largest tropical rain forest?Which country is the world's leading copper producer?Which South American countries are members of OPEC?Which country is the world's leading coffee producer?Where does cocaine come from?What percentage of Americans have used cocaine?HISTORY Where did the Inca civilization develop?What is Machu Picchu?How was the New World divided between Spain and Portugal?Which South American country was the first to gain independence from colonial rule?Who was Che Guevara?Which South American territory has yet to gain its independence?Which place in South America is part of the European Union?What is Devil's Island?What was Gran Colombia?Why did Peru and Ecuador fight two wars in the twentieth century?Who was Simon Bolivar?PEOPLE, COUNTRIES, AND CITIESWhere is South America's population clustered?What percentage of the world's poor live in South America?What are the most heavily urbanized countries in South America?What is the largest city in the Amazon River basin?What is MERCOSUR?How large is Brazil?When did Brazil move its capital city?Who designed and planned the capital of Brazil?What statue overlooks Rio de Janeiro?What are the capitals of Bolivia?What country is crossed by both the equator and a Tropic?What South American city has more Japanese residents than any city outside of Japan?What is Mardi Gras?What makes Brazilian automobiles run?Who is Alberto Fujimori and what has he done for Peru?Where has one-third of the population of Suriname emigrated to since 1975?What is the world's highest capital city?What port does landlocked Bolivia use?What is the actual name of Bogotá?What is a cartel?How long is Chile?Who's fighting over the Falkland Islands?What is the world's southernmost city?What is the Pan-American Highway?What is the primary religion throughout Latin America?What is a plaza?WESTERN EUROPEPHYSICAL FEATURES AND RESOURCESWhat are the Alps?What are the Apennines?Where is the Rock of Gibraltar?Where are the Highlands?How wide is the Strait of Gibraltar?Where is the southernmost glacier in Europe?How many volcanoes are in Europe?Which volcano poses the most risk to people in Europe?How many volcanoes does Iceland have?What is Iceland's leading export?How much oil is produced by Europe?Who is the biggest producer of oil in Europe?What are the seven hills of Rome?Where is the Jutland Peninsula?Where is the Black Forest?HISTORYWhat was the Potsdam Conference?What was the Berlin Wall?Where was Checkpoint Charlie?What is Hadrian's Wall?What was the Maginot Line?What is Benelux?How many Irish left during the Great Starvation?PEOPLE, COUNTRIES, AND CITIES What is the European Union?Where are the low countries?How do the Netherlands keep getting bigger?What is Randstad?What is The Hague?What are the two cultural groups that make up Belgium?Who settled Denmark?What's the difference between England, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom?Is Scotland a country?What are the British Isles?What is the Commonwealth?What is Land's End?What is a moor?Where is Camelot?Did people bathe in Bath?Where is Catalonia?Where is the French Riviera?Where does the Tour de France begin and end?What is the Giro d'Italia?Where is Gaul?What was the French Community?Who rules Andorra?What are the largest cities of Europe?Which country had the world's first legislature?What was the first tunnel through the Alps?Which European country produces the most nuclear energy?Where is the highest life expectancy on Earth?What are some of the most expensive cities in the world?What is Europe's oldest independent state?Where is Atlantis?RUSSIA AND EASTERN EUROPERUSSIA AND THE FORMER SOVIET STATESWhere does Asia end and Europe begin?What was the U.S.S.R.?How many republics or states comprised the former Soviet Union?What is the Commonwealth of Independent States?How large a part of the Soviet Union was Russia?How big is Russia?What is Russia's official name?Why is there a tiny piece of Russia in the middle of Eastern Europe?How cold is Siberia?Is it possible to drive across Russia?How do most people travel across Russia?How long does it take to travel by train across Russia?Which Russian city is among the most expensive in the world?How many people live in Moscow?How many tourists visit Russia each year?How fast is the Russian economy expanding?How much market share does Russia's national airline, Aeroflot, have?What role did Russia play in World War II?What is the longest river in Europe?How big is Siberia?What is the largest city in Siberia?How big is Russia's Lake Baikal?How did factories in the U.S.S.R. end up on the east side of the country?What started the fighting in Chechnya?Where was the Pale of Settlement?What was the world's worst nuclear disaster?EASTERN EUROPE What are the Baltic States?What are the Balkan States?What is balkanization?Does Yugoslavia still exist?What is ethnic cleansing?How did the Ukraine help feed the Soviet Union?Why does Romania have so many orphans?Why did Macedonia's name cause problems between that country and Greece?Is Transylvania a country?Where is Crimea?Where is the Putrid Sea?What was the Byzantine Empire?What two countries emerged from Czechoslovakia?What two cities make up Budapest?What playwright and author became president of an Eastern European country?Who was Lech Walesa?Who are the Maygar?Do Caucasians come from the Caucasus Mountains?Which river touches more countries than any other?ASIAWhere does Europe end and Asia begin?CHINA AND MIDDLE ASIA What is the most populous country in the world?What is China's one-child rule?What is the Forbidden City?How was Taiwan created?Is the Great Wall of China the only man-made object that can be seen from space?How long is China's Great Wall?What is the Great Wall of China made of?What is the Terracotta Army?What is the Three Gorges Dam?How important is China to the biodiversity in the world?Where can you see the Great Wall?What is the oldest European settlement in eastern Asia?Why isn't Tibet on the map?How long have Communists been in power in China?What is the highest railroad in the world?What is the world's most commonly spoken language?What is pinyin?How much rice does China produce?Who is the biggest exporter of rice in the world?What transition took place within Hong Kong in 1997?What is the least-densely populated country in the world?Why did the Soviet Union invade Afghanistan in 1979?What were the Buddhas of Bamiyan?Why has Afghanistan been contested and invaded so many times?What is Ulan Bator?How big was the Mongol Empire?Who was Kublai Khan?Who are the Sherpa?THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT What is in the Taj Mahal?What makes New Delhi so new?Where did Bombay go?What is Bollywood?Where is Dum Dum airport?Does India have a population control program similar to China's?How does India's caste system work?Where is the world's second-highest mountain?Where was East Pakistan?Why does Bangladesh flood so often?JAPAN AND THE KOREAN PENINSULAWhat are the four main islands that make up Japan?What is the world's most visited mountain?Where is the land of the rising sun?How geologically active is Japan?How does Japan get its oil?What is the life expectancy in Japan?Where is Iwo Jima?Where was the first atomic bomb used on a populated area?What is a bullet train?How did North and South Korea come to be?What is South Korea's national slogan?How long did Japan occupy and colonize Korea?How does South Korea rank in the world economy?What are some of the largest South Korean companies?What is Truce Village?How many times have North and South Korea met to negotiate a solution to the division of Korea in Panmunjom?What catastrophe happened in North Korea in 1995?Who provides food to North Korea today?What is the Arirang Festival?SOUTHEAST ASIAWhere is Indochina?When did Burma become Myanmar?Why was the Vietnam War fought, and what were some of the consequences?Which Southeast Asian country is one of the world's richest?What is Bandar Seri Begawan?Where is Brunei?What are the principal industries in the Maldives?How many islands make up the Maldives?Which country has the lowest maximum elevation in the world?What is a dhoni?What language is spoken in the Maldives?What part of Southeast Asia is one of the most contested geographic regions in the world?What is the only Catholic country in Asia?THE PHILIPPINES AND INDONESIA How many islands make up the Philippines?When did the United States control the Philippines?How many islands make up Indonesia?What is the world's most densely populated island?What is Southeast Asia's largest oil-producing country?What was East Timor?What is the smallest country in Southeast Asia?Is Singapore a city or a country?MIDDLE EASTTHE LAND AND HISTORY What is the Middle East in the middle of?Where is the Middle East today?What was the Ottoman Empire?Is the Middle East a desert?Can you ski in the Middle East?What is a Mediterranean climate?Is the Empty Quarter empty?What commodity makes the Persian Gulf so strategically important?What was Mesopotamia?What was Babylonia?When did the Suez Canal begin to operate?Where are Egypt's pyramids?RELIGION Which religions began in the Middle East?What is Zoroastrianism?Which religions came to be practiced first?What is the difference between Islam and a Muslim?Who was Muhammed?Why do people travel to Mecca?What is the holiest site in Mecca?How many Muslims make a pilgrimage to Mecca each year?Who are the Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims?Who is an ayatollah?What is a theocracy?How far did the Islamic Empire spread?What is the world's largest Islamic nation?Are all Israelis Jewish?CONFLICTS AND NATIONS How did Israel become a country?What is the Gaza Strip?How has the West Bank caused conflict?Which member of the United Nations could not serve on the Security Council?Why is Cyprus divided?When did the Iraq War begin?Why did the United States invade Iraq?How many people have been killed during the U.S. war with Iraq?How much money have U.S. taxpayers spent on the war in Iraq?What nationalities were the 9/11 terrorists?Who is Osama bin Laden?PEOPLE, COUNTRIES, AND CITIES What are the largest cities in the Middle East?Who lives in the City of the Dead?What does the suffix "stan" mean?How many countries end in the suffix "stan"?Where is Asia Minor?Where is the Maghreb?Where in Egypt do most Egyptians live?Who are the Kurds?Which country is composed of seven sheikdoms?How many people speak Arabic in the world?Which Middle Eastern country has the highest percentage of urban population?Which Middle Eastern country has the largest population?Which country has the most Azeri-speaking people?Which Middle Eastern country currently has the longest-ruling leader?Who are the Bedouin?Which country has a flag of only a single color and no design or emblem?Where is Greater Syria?What was the United Arab Republic?How do you drive to the island country of Bahrain?Where does the name Saudi Arabia come from?Which Middle Eastern country has the most tourism?AFRICAPHYSICAL FEATURES AND RESOURCES Where is the Kalahari Desert?How big is the Sahara Desert?Why are the Blue Nile and White Nile Rivers both called Niles?Was the flooding of the Nile predictable before dams were built?Is there any permanent ice in Africa?Has global warming affected the ice on Mt. Kilimanjaro?How was Mt. Kilimanjaro formed?What is the world's longest freshwater lake?What is Africa's largest lake?What is the Bight of Bonny?How did a lake kill more than 2,000 people?What country in Africa has the world's highest minimum elevation?Which African country is the world's leading producer of cocoa beans?Which country produces the most gold?What fish, once thought to be extinct, suddenly appeared near Comoros?HISTORYHow did the Berlin Conference of 1884 help expedite the colonization of Africa?How many African countries were independent in 1950?Which countries colonized Africa?How many African countries were colonized by Italy?Of all countries in Africa, which countries were never colonized?Who was Haile Selassie?Who is Nelson Mandela?What was apartheid?Why are there so many starving people in Ethiopia?What was the Nazis' plan for Madagascar?What is the Organization of African Unity?Which country in Africa is the only country that is not a member of the African Union?PEOPLE, COUNTRIES, AND CITIES How many countries are there in Africa?How many African countries are landlocked?What is the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic?What is Africa's most populous country?How many provinces are there in South Africa?How many capital cities does South Africa have?How many countries named Congo are there?Where is Timbuktu?Who owns Walvis Bay?Where is the Barbary Coast?Why is Cabinda separate from Angola?What was Zimbabwe's previous name?Where is Ouagadougou?Which country lies completely within South Africa?Is Equatorial Guinea on the equator?Where is the Horn of Africa?How many people lived on the islands of Seychelles before 1770?What is Caprivi's Finger?What language do people in Madagascar speak?How many official languages are there in South Africa?Which African country has Spanish as an official language?Where is the world's largest church?How prevalent is AIDS in Africa?What is the name of the currency of Botswana?What is one of the only countries in the world to provide constitutional protection to gays, lesbians, and bisexuals?What was the Rwanda genocide?OCEANIA AND ANTARCTICAOCEANIAWhat is Oceania?Who owns all of those islands in the Pacific Ocean?What is Micronesia?What is Polynesia?What is Melanesia?What is a coral reef?Where is the largest coral reef in the world?What is an atoll?How did the bikini get its name?How do the people on the tiny islands in the Southern Pacific Ocean go shopping?Where did Gauguin live?Which country has more languages than any other in the world?Where did the mutineers of the Bounty land?Where did Charles Darwin develop his theory of natural selection?AUSTRALIA How did Australia get its name?Who are the Aborigines?Was Australia really used as a penal colony?What is the capital of Australia?What's the big red rock in the middle of Australia?Are kangaroos native to Australia?Is the Tasmanian devil a real animal?Is Australia the smallest continent?Which country is the world's leading bauxite producer?Which country is the world's leading lead producer?How much beef does Australia export?What is a boomerang?NEW ZEALANDWho are the Maori?What is Aotearoa?What is the Royal Flying Doctor Service?Are there more people or sheep in New Zealand?Can you ski in New Zealand?Who are Kiwis?What was the Rainbow Warrior?Which country was the world's first welfare state?Which country first granted women the right to vote?ANTARCTICA How thick is Antarctica's ice?What time is it in Antarctica?Which continent has the highest average elevation?How dry is Antarctica?Who owns Antarctica?COUNTRIES OF THE WORLDAfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanThe BahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBhutanBoliviaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBrazilBruneiBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaColombiaComorosDemocratic Republic of the CongoRepublic of the CongoCosta RicaCote d'lvoireCroatiaCubaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFijiFinlandFranceGabonThe GambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGreeceGrenadaGuatemalaGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHondurasHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIranIraqIrelandIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKosovoKuwaitKyrgyzstanLaosLatviaLebanonLesotho(ZAR) LiberiaLibyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacedoniaMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMarshall IslandsMauritaniaMauritiusMexicoMicronesiaMoldovaMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepâiThe NetherlandsNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNorth KoreaNorwayOmanPakistanPalauPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruThe PhilippinesPolandPortugalQatarRomaniaRussiaRwandaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSâo Tomé and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth KoreaSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyriaTaiwanTajikistanTanzaniaThailandTimor-LesteTogoTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVatican CityVenezuelaVietnamYemenZambiaZimbabwe
 
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