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Pediatric Rehabilitation - Michael Alexander

Year 2015

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DEDICATIONPREFACE1. HISTORY AND EXAMINATIONSETTING THE TONEHISTORYPRENATAL AND PERINATAL HISTORYDEVELOPMENTAL HISTORYGENERAL HEALTH HISTORYHISTORY OF BEHAVIOREDUCATIONAL AND SOCIAL HISTORYFAMILY HISTORYSTUDIESEXAMINATIONOBSERVATIONEXAMINATION BY AGESCHOOL-AGE AND ADOLESCENT PATIENTSGROWTHINSPECTIONPALPATIONORGAN SYSTEMSNEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEMMUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEMSENSORY EXAMINATIONFUNCTIONAL EVALUATIONINFORMING INTERVIEW2. MEDICAL CARE OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIESMEDICAL HOMEDISABILITY CHARACTERIZATIONROUTINE HEALTH MAINTENANCEGROWTH AND NUTRITIONIMMUNIZATIONSDENTAL CAREVISIONHEARINGILLNESSES IN THE PRIMARY CARE OFFICERESPIRATORY COMPLICATIONSDroolingRespiratory DistressNEUROLOGIC COMPLICATIONSSeizure ActivitySpasticityPainORTHOPEDIC COMPLICATIONSFracturesReproductive/Sexual HealthSleep HealthPALLIATIVE CARECONCLUSION3. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN PEDIATRIC REHABILITATIONADJUSTMENT VERSUS PSYCHIATRIC DIAGNOSISNATURE OF MEASUREMENTNORM-REFERENCED MEASUREMENTRELIABILITYVALIDITYUSES OF ASSESSMENTTYPES OF ASSESSMENTSAPPROACHES TO ASSESSMENTCULTURE-SENSITIVE ASSESSMENTSPECIFIC INSTRUMENTSNEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATIONNEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL BATTERIESATTENTION, CONCENTRATION, AND INFORMATION PROCESSINGPROBLEM-SOLVING AND EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING TESTSNONVERBAL/VISUAL-PERCEPTUAL FUNCTION TESTSLANGUAGE FUNCTIONING TESTSMEMORY AND LEARNING TESTSSENSORY-PERCEPTUAL AND MOTOR TESTSCOMPUTERIZED ASSESSMENTCOGNITIVE AND INTELLECTUAL MEASURESINSTRUMENTS FOR USE WITH YOUNG CHILDRENALTERNATIVE TESTS OF COGNITIVE FUNCTIONACHIEVEMENT TESTSADAPTIVE BEHAVIORPSYCHOSOCIAL EVALUATIONCAVEATSINDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENT TOOLSFAMILY ENVIRONMENTPOPULATION-SPECIFIC ASSESSMENTSCONCLUSION4. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AND DISORDERS OF COMMUNICATION AND ORAL MOTOR FUNCTIONSPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AND DISORDERSANATOMY OF SPEECH SYSTEMSRespirationLower AirwayCONTRIBUTION OF RESPIRATORY DYSFUNCTION TO SPEECH DISORDERSPhonationCONTRIBUTION OF PHONATORY DYSFUNCTION TO SPEECH DISORDERSArticulation/ResonanceCONTRIBUTION OF ARTICULATORY/RESONATORY DYSFUNCTION TO SPEECH DISORDERSMOTOR SPEECH DISORDERSCOMPONENTS OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGEFormContentUseSPEECH AND LANGUAGE ACQUISITIONSPEECH AND LANGUAGE DISORDERSASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT OF SPEECH/ LANGUAGE DISORDERSAssessmentTreatmentFEEDING AND SWALLOWING PROCESSES AND DISORDERSPEARLS AND PERILSACKNOWLEDGMENTS5. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF GAIT: A SYSTEMATIC APPROACHNORMAL GAIT IS CYCLICAL AND SYMMETRICTYPICAL COMPONENTS OF AN INSTRUMENTED GAIT ANALYSISIMPAIRMENT IDENTIFICATION IS FACILITATED BY SUBDIVIDING THE GAIT CYCLEFUNCTIONAL PREREQUISITES FOR WALKINGPHASES OF THE GAIT CYCLECRITICAL EVENTS LINK GAIT IMPAIRMENTS TO POSSIBLE INTERVENTIONSCRITICAL EVENTS DURING THE WEIGHT ACCEPTANCE TASKCRITICAL EVENTS DURING THE SINGLE LIMB SUPPORT TASKCRITICAL EVENTS DURING THE SWING LIMB ADVANCEMENT TASKMOTION ANALYSIS CASE STUDY-SPASTIC DIPLEGIAMOTION ANALYSIS CASE STUDY-POSTOPERATIVE ANALYSISSUMMARYPEARLS, PERILS, AND RESOURCESACKNOWLEDGMENTS6. ELECTRODIAGNOSIS IN PEDIATRICSINTRODUCTIONMATURATIONAL FACTORS IN PEDIATRIC ELECTRODIAGNOSISNERVE CONDUCTION STUDIESMOTOR NERVE CONDUCTIONDISTAL MOTOR LATENCY (DML)COMPOUND MUSCLE ACTION POTENTIAL (CMAP)SENSORY NERVE CONDUCTIONF-WAVESH-REFLEXNEUROMUSCULAR TRANSMISSIONMOTOR UNIT DURATIONELECTROMYOGRAPHYMOTOR UNIT CONFIGURATION AND AMPLITUDETECHNICAL FACTORS WITH INFANTILE NERVE CONDUCTION STUDIESTEMPERATUREVOLUME CONDUCTIONSHOCK ARTIFACTMEASUREMENT OF DISTANCES/MEASUREMENT ERRORSTIMULATING ELECTRODESRECORDING ELECTRODESSensory ConductionMotor ConductionSPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR NERVE CONDUCTION STUDIESREPETITIVE NERVE STIMULATION STUDIESTECHNICAL FACTORS OF NEEDLE ELECTROMYOGRAPHYELECTRODESOPTIMAL MUSCLES TO STUDY FOR REST ACTIVITYOPTIMAL MUSCLES FOR EVALUATION OF RECRUITMENT, MOTOR UNIT CONFIGURATION, AND INTERFERENCE PATTERNSEDATIONLIMITATIONS OF SINGLE-FIBER EMGSPECIFIC CLINICAL PROBLEMS IN PEDIATRIC ELECTRODIAGNOSISELECTRODIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF THE FLOPPY INFANTDIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS FOR EARLY RESPIRATORY DISTRESS IN INFANCYACUTE ONSET INFANTILE HYPOTONIAMOTOR NEURON DISORDERS (EG, SMA)SPINAL CORD INJURYBRACHIAL PLEXUS AND CERVICAL NERVE ROOT LESIONSFACIAL PARALYSIS IN THE NEONATECOMMON POLYNEUROPATHIESHereditary Neuropathies (Charcot-Marie-Tooth [CMT] Subtypes)Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (GBS)Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating PolyradiculoneuropathyAxonal GBS/Acute Motor Axonal NeuropathyNeuropathies Associated With Central DisordersAcquired Toxic NeuropathiesBurn Associated NeuropathiesDiabetic PolyneuropathyNeuropathies Associated With InfectionsENTRAPMENT MONONEUROPATHIES IN CHILDRENCarpal Tunnel Syndrome in ChildrenUlnar Mononeuropathies in ChildrenRadial Mononeuropathies in ChildrenPeroneal Mononeuropathies in ChildrenSciatic Mononeuropathies in ChildrenFemoral Mononeuropathies in ChildrenNeuropathies With Limb Lengthening ProceduresNEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISORDERSInfantile BotulismTransient Neonatal Autoimmune Myasthenia GravisToxic Neuromuscular Junction DisordersCongenital Myasthenic SyndromesMyasthenia GravisLambert-Eaton SyndromeMYOPATHIESPolymyositis/DermatomyositisCongenital MyopathiesDystrophic MyopathiesMetabolic MyopathiesMyotonic DisordersLinear SclerodermaSOMATOSENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALSGENERAL PRINCIPLESCLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF SSEPs IN CHILDRENBrain Injury in SSEPsTraumatic Spinal Cord InjuryTethered Cord SyndromeIntraoperative Spinal MonitoringBrachial Plexus InjuryDemyelinating DiseasesCONCLUSION7. GUIDANCE TECHNIQUES FOR BOTULINUM TOXINS AND OTHER INJECTIONSPATIENT EVALUATIONTREATMENT PLANNINGANATOMIC GUIDANCE METHODSTECHNIQUEEQUIPMENTADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF ANATOMIC GUIDANCE FOR BoNT THERAPYAdvantagesLimitationsCADAVER STUDIESCLINICAL STUDIESComparison of Anatomic Localization With Other Localization Techniques for BoNT in Limb MusclesCONCLUSIONSMOTOR ENDPLATE TARGETING OR LOCALIZATION TECHNIQUESTUDIES ON THE LOCATION OF MOTOR ENDPLATE LOCATION AND DISTRIBUTIONMoEP TARGETING FOR BoNT INJECTIONSLOWER LIMBUPPER LIMBMoEP TARGETING TECHNIQUESADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF MoEP TARGETING FOR BoNT THERAPYAdvantages of MoEP TargetingDisadvantages of MoEP TargetingCONCLUSIONSELECTROMYOGRAPHY GUIDANCE FOR BoNT INJECTIONSTECHNIQUE FOR EMG-GUIDED BoNT PROCEDURESEQUIPMENT FOR EMG GUIDANCEADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF EMG FOR BoNT PROCEDURESAdvantagesLimitationsEVIDENCESUMMARYELECTRICAL STIMULATION GUIDANCE FOR BoNT INJECTIONSTECHNIQUEEQUIPMENT FOR E-STIM GUIDANCEADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF E-STIM FOR BoNT INJECTIONSAdvantagesDisadvantagesEVIDENCEIMAGING-BASED GUIDANCE FOR BoNT INJECTIONSUS PHYSICS AND SONO-ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES OF TISSUESTECHNIQUE FOR US GUIDED FOR BoNT INJECTIONSEQUIPMENTCLEANING AND MAINTENANCEADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF US TO GUIDE BoNT INJECTIONSAdvantagesDisadvantages of US Guidance for BoNT InjectionsEVIDENCE SUPPORTING OR REFUTING THE USE OF US TO GUIDE BoNT INJECTIONSSUMMARYCONCLUSIONS8. ORTHOTICS AND ASSISTIVE DEVICESUPPER AND LOWER LIMB ORTHOSESSHOE INSERTSORTHOSES FOR POSITIONING, RANGE OF MOTION, AND HEALINGMOBILITY AIDSTRANSFER AIDSSTANDERSGAIT AIDSWHEELCHAIRS AND SEATINGPOSITIONING COMPONENTSCAR SEATSVEHICLE ACCESSIBILITY: RAMPS AND LIFTSRECREATIONAL EQUIPMENTADAPTIVE INTERFACESAUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATIONAccess OptionsVocabulary and Syntax OrganizationPragmatic Language Function SupportsLanguage OutputResourcesASSISTIVE ROBOTS AND ORTHOSESAUTOMATED FEEDERSORTHOSESROBOTSTHERAPY ROBOTS9. ADAPTIVE SPORTS AND RECREATIONHISTORYEXERCISE IN PEDIATRICS: PHYSIOLOGIC IMPACTEXERCISE IN PEDIATRICS: PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACTADAPTED SPORTS AND RECREATION PROFESSIONALSPARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITYINJURIES IN DISABLED ATHLETES"EVENING THE ODDS": CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMSADAPTING RECREATION OPPORTUNITIESCampingFishingHuntingDanceMartial ArtsScuba and SnorkelingMusicHippotherapy and Horseback Riding TherapyAquatic TherapyYoga/Tai Chi ChuanSPORTS FOR FUN AND COMPETITIONArcheryBaseballBasketballBowlingCyclingFootball (American)HockeyGoalballRacquetballRoad RacingSkiing: AlpineSkiing: NordicSoccerSoftballSwimmingTable TennisTennisTrack and FieldPEARLS AND PERILS10. ORTHOPEDICS AND MUSCULOSKELETAL CONDITIONSGROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE BONY SKELETONCONGENITAL CONDITIONSBRACHIAL PLEXUS PALSYEVALUATIONTREATMENTCOMPLICATIONSSURGICAL INDICATIONSSURGERYPAINREHABILITATION OF THE CHILD WITH RHEUMATIC DISEASEJUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITISCLINICAL FEATURES OF JIA SUBTYPESSystemic JIAOligoarthritisPolyarthritisPsoriatic ArthritisEnthesitis-Related ArthritisUndifferentiated ArthritisREHABILITATION OF THE CHILD WITH JIASPECIFIC JOINTS IN JIACervical SpineTemporomandibular Joint (TMJ)Upper ExtremitiesLower ExtremitiesMEDICAL AND SURGICAL TREATMENTS OF JIAINFECTIOUS DISEASE WITH ARTHRITISSEPTIC ARTHRITISREACTIVE ARTHRITISLYME DISEASEOTHER RHEUMATIC DISEASES OF CHILDHOODSystemic Lupus ErythematosusSclerodermaHEMATOLOGIC DISORDERSHemophiliaSickle Cell DiseaseSummaryBURN INJURIES IN CHILDRENEPIDEMIOLOGYBURN ASSESSMENTACUTE BURN MANAGEMENTCHRONIC BURN MANAGEMENTOUTCOMEPREVENTION OF PEDIATRIC BURNSDEVELOPMENTAL CONDITIONSSCOLIOSISOVERVIEWEMBRYOLOGY, GROWTH, AND CURVE PROGRESSIONCURVE CLASSIFICATION AND NAMINGHISTORY, PHYSICAL EXAM, AND TREATMENT OVERVIEWCurve DocumentationRadiation ExposureOrthotic ManagementScoliosis-Specific Exercise (SSE)Surgical InterventionsTYPES OF SCOLIOSISCongenital ScoliosisCongenital KyphosisIdiopathic ScoliosisNeuromuscular ScoliosisFunctional ScoliosisLEG-LENGTH INEQUALITYCONSTITUTIONAL OR INTRINSIC BONE CONDITIONSDEFECTS OF TUBULAR BONE OR SPINAL GROWTH PRESENTAT BIRTHAchondroplasiaDISORGANIZED CARTILAGE AND FIBROUS COMPONENTSFibrous DysplasiaABNORMAL BONY DENSITY OR STRUCTUREOsteogenesis ImperfectaMETABOLIC CONDITIONS USUALLY AFFECTING CALCIUM OR PHOSPHORUS METABOLISMRicketsMucopolysaccharidosesEXTRASKELETAL DISORDERSSickle Cell AnemiaChronic Kidney DiseaseClinical CharacteristicsSUMMARYMUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN AND CHILD ABUSECOMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROMEAcute Phase Lasts up to 3 MonthsDiagnosticsTreatmentFIBROMYALGIAClinical CharacteristicsDiagnosticsTreatmentOutcomesBACK PAINSpondylolysis and SpondylolisthesisReferred Back PainCHILD ABUSETUMORS OF THE BONEDiagnosticsTreatmentRehabilitation11. ACUTE MANAGEMENT AND REHABILITATION OF SPORT-SPECIFIC MUSCULOSKELETAL INJURIESFOOTBALLBASEBALL AND SOFTBALLBASKETBALL AND VOLLEYBALLSWIMMINGRUNNING SPORTSWRESTLINGGYMNASTICSSOCCERCYCLINGTENNISGOLFDANCESKIING/SNOWBOARDINGICE HOCKEYSKATEBOARDING12. CONCUSSION MANAGEMENT AND REHABILITATIONINTRODUCTIONWHAT IS A CONCUSSION?PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF CONCUSSIONSYMPTOMATOLOGYEPIDEMIOLOGY OF CONCUSSIONSPORTS-RELATED CONCUSSIONCONCUSSION EVALUATIONAcute EvaluationRed FlagsNeuroimagingSECOND IMPACT SYNDROMECONCUSSION MANAGEMENTRETURN TO SCHOOLRETURN TO SPORTCONCUSSION RECOVERYTHERAPIES FOR CONCUSSIONNEUROCOGNITIVE TESTING13. PEDIATRIC LIMB DEFICIENCIESINTRODUCTIONCONGENITAL DEFICIENCIESINCIDENCEETIOLOGYCLASSIFICATIONACQUIRED AMPUTATIONSTERMINOLOGYTRAUMATIC INJURIESTUMORSINFECTIONSSURGICAL APPROACH: GENERAL PRINCIPLESPHANTOM SENSATIONUPPER LIMBCOMMON UPPER LIMB DEFICIENCIESDigital DeficienciesPartial Hand and Wrist Disarticulation DeficienciesTransverse Deficiencies of the ForearmElbow Disarticulation and Transhumeral DeficienciesShoulder Disarticulation and Intrascapulothoracic DeficienciesUNCOMMON UPPER LIMB DEFICIENCIESLongitudinal Deficiencies of the ForearmLongitudinal Deficiencies of the HumerusINTERVENTION, PROSTHETIC TREATMENT, AND ADAPTIVE EQUIPMENTTHERAPY AND TRAININGADVANCEMENTS IN UPPER EXTREMITY PROSTHETICSLOWER LIMBCOMMON LOWER LIMB DEFICIENCIESLongitudinal Deficiency of the FibulaFemoral AbnormalitiesLongitudinal Deficiency of the TibiaUNCOMMON LOWER LIMB DEFICIENCIESCOMMONLY ACQUIRED LOWER LIMB AMPUTATIONS IN CHILDRENINTERVENTION, PROSTHETIC TREATMENT, AND ADAPTIVE EQUIPMENTFITTING TIMETABLETRAININGTRAINING FOLLOWING AMPUTATIONSADVANCEMENTS IN LOWER EXTREMITY PROSTHETICSTHE AGING LIMB-DEFICIENT CHILDPEARLS AND PERILSUPPER EXTREMITIESLOWER EXTREMITIES14. CEREBRAL PALSYEPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORSCLASSIFICATIONPATHOLOGYINITIAL EVALUATION AND CLINICAL FINDINGSSIGNS AND SYMPTOMSIMAGINGLABORATORY FINDINGSDIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSISASSOCIATED DISORDERSSENSORY IMPAIRMENTSVISUAL IMPAIRMENTSHEARING IMPAIRMENTSCOGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTSEMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL IMPAIRMENTSEPILEPSYOROMOTOR IMPAIRMENTSNUTRITIONAL DISORDERSGENITOURINARY DISORDERSRESPIRATORY DISORDERSBONE MINERAL DENSITY DISORDERSMUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSFoot/AnkleKneeHipSpineUpper ExtremityGAIT IMPAIRMENTSTREATMENTGENERAL PRINCIPLESPHYSICAL AND OCCUPATIONAL THERAPYTherapy MethodsStretchingStrengtheningTREADMILL TRAINING (TT) AND PARTIAL BODY WEIGHT SUPPORT TREADMILL TRAINING (PBWSTT)CONSTRAINT-INDUCED MOVEMENT THERAPY (CIMT)/INTENSIVE BIMANUAL TRAININGELECTRICAL STIMULATIONNeuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES)Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)Threshold Electrical Stimulation (TES)SPEECH THERAPYHYPERTONIA MANAGEMENTCHEMICAL DENERVATIONAlcohol BlocksBotulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT)ORAL MEDICATIONSBenzodiazepinesBaclofenDantrolene SodiumINTRATHECAL BACLOFEN (ITB)SELECTIVE DORSAL RHIZOTOMY (SDR)ORTHOPEDIC SURGERYORTHOSESUpper Extremity OrthosesLower Extremity OrthosesSpinal OrthosesADAPTIVE EQUIPMENTCOMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE THERAPIESHyperbaric Oxygen TherapyConductive EducationAdeli Suit TherapyCranial OsteopathyAdditional TherapiesCOURSE AND PROGNOSISOUTCOME MEASURESBody Structure and FunctionActivity and ParticipationGross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)Gait AnalysisQUALITY OF LIFEPROGNOSIS FOR AMBULATIONAGING WITH CEREBRAL PALSYPEARLS AND PERILS15. SPINA BIFIDAEPIDEMIOLOGYETIOLOGYNORMAL DEVELOPMENTPATHOLOGYGENETIC INFLUENCESENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCESPRENATAL SCREENINGCLINICAL TYPES OF NEURAL TUBE DEFECTSSPINA BIFIDA OCCULTASPINA BIFIDA CYSTICACAUDAL REGRESSION SYNDROMECLINICAL SIGNS AND COURSETHORACIC LESIONSL1-L3 SEGMENTL4-L5 SEGMENTSSACRAL SEGMENTSSENSORY DEFICITASSOCIATED CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM MALFORMATIONSSPINAL CORDCEREBELLUM AND HINDBRAINVENTRICLESFOREBRAINOTHER MALFORMATIONSTREATMENTTEAM APPROACHNEUROSURGICAL TREATMENTNEUROGENIC BLADDERPHYSIOLOGYBLADDER CAPACITYDIAGNOSTICSDIAGNOSTIC TESTSFUNCTIONAL STUDIESOther StudiesRISK FACTORS FOR UPPER TRACT/KIDNEY DETERIORATIONTREATMENTTREATMENT OF STORAGE DYSFUNCTIONSTREATMENT OF EMPTYING DYSFUNCTIONSPRIMARY CARE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN MANAGED WITH CLEAN INTERMITTENT CATHETERIZATIONANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS AND BACTERIURIA TREATMENTNEONATAL VERSUS CHILDHOOD TREATMENTFURTHER SURGICAL MANAGEMENT FOR REFLUX AND SMALL NEUROGENIC BLADDERSSOCIAL ASPECTSNEUROGENIC BOWELNEUROGENIC BOWEL DYSFUNCTIONBOWEL MANAGEMENTORTHOPEDICSOVERVIEWSPINEHIPSKNEESTIBIAFEETCLINICAL PEARLSREHABILITATIONMANAGEMENT OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DEFORMITIESDEVELOPMENTFIRST SIX MONTHS OF LIFESIX TO TWELVE MONTHS OF AGEAMBULATION/MOBILITYLATEX ALLERGYSELF-CAREOBESITYPRECOCIOUS PUBERTYOSTEOPOROSISTREATMENTCOGNITIVE FUNCTIONNEUROPSYCHOLOGY AND LEARNING PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH SPINA BIFIDALONG TERMAGING WITH A NEURAL TUBE DEFECTVOCATIONAL COUNSELINGRESOURCES FOR FAMILIESCONCLUSIONACKNOWLEDGMENTS16. SPINAL CORD INJURIESEPIDEMIOLOGYINCIDENCE AND PREVALENCEDEMOGRAPHICSCAUSE OF INJURYCLASSIFICATION OF SPINAL CORD INJURYLEVEL OF INJURY—ASIA IMPAIRMENT SCALECENTRAL CORD SYNDROMEBROWN-SEQUARD SYNDROMEANTERIOR CORD SYNDROMECAUDA EQUINA AND CONUS MEDULLARIS SYNDROMESPINAL CORD CONCUSSIONSPINAL CORD INJURY WITHOUT OBVIOUS RADIOGRAPHIC ABNORMALITYPROGNOSIS FOR NEUROLOGIC RECOVERYPREVENTIONEARLY TREATMENTSPINAL STABILIZATIONUSE OF STEROIDSRESPIRATORY FUNCTIONURINARY FUNCTIONGASTROINTESTINAL AND BOWEL FUNCTIONFLUIDS AND NUTRITIONREHABILITATIONMOBILITYSELF-CARE AND ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVINGCOGNITIONBLADDER MANAGEMENTNEUROGENIC BOWELRESPIRATORY FUNCTIONNUTRITIONSKINAUTONOMIC DYSREFLEXIAHYPERCALCEMIADEEP VENOUS THROMBOSISTEMPERATURE REGULATIONLATEX ALLERGYSPASTICITYPSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUESEDUCATION AND VOCATIONEQUIPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTWHEELCHAIRSORTHOTICSSPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN HIGH TETRAPLEGIALONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP17. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURYEPIDEMIOLOGYCOSTS OF INJURYCAUSES OF INJURYASSOCIATION WITH OTHER INJURIESPATHOPHYSIOLOGYPRIMARY INJURY AND SECONDARY INJURYDIFFUSE SWELLING AND SECOND IMPACT SYNDROMENONACCIDENTAL TRAUMAIMPLICATIONS OF PLASTICITYGROWING SKULL FRACTURENEUROIMAGINGELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHYINJURY SEVERITYGLASGOW COMA SCALEPOSTTRAUMATIC AMNESIA AND CHILDREN'S ORIENTATION AND AMNESIA TESTDURATION OF UNCONSCIOUSNESSCOMMON MOTOR DEFICITSFOCAL DAMAGEDIFFUSE DAMAGEBALANCETREMORTONE ABNORMALITIESSPASTICITYPhysical ManagementPharmacologic ManagementDYSTONIARIGIDITYCOMMON SENSORY DEFICITSOLFACTORY DYSFUNCTION (ANOSMIA)HEARING IMPAIRMENTVISUAL IMPAIRMENTCOMMON COGNITIVE DEFICITSATTENTION AND AROUSALMEMORY IMPAIRMENTBEHAVIORAL PROBLEMSCOMMUNICATION DEFICITSEXECUTIVE FUNCTIONSOCIAL FUNCTIONINGMEDICAL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH TBINEUROENDOCRINE DYSFUNCTIONCEREBRAL SALT WASTINGANTERIOR PITUITARY DYSFUNCTIONPRECOCIOUS PUBERTYRESPIRATORY DYSFUNCTIONNUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENTTUBE FEEDINGSGASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASETRANSITION TO ORAL FEEDINGSBOWEL MANAGEMENTBLADDER MANAGEMENTCENTRAL AUTONOMIC DYSFUNCTIONHETEROTOPIC OSSIFICATIONPOSTTRAUMATIC EPILEPSYPOSTTRAUMATIC HYDROCEPHALUS AND CEREBRAL ATROPHYREHABILITATIONEARLY REHABILITATIONINPATIENT REHABILITATIONSENSORY STIMULATIONINTERVENTIONS BASED ON THE COGNITIVE LEVELPSYCHOSOCIAL SERVICESDISCHARGE PLANNINGCOMMUNITY REINTEGRATIONSCHOOL SERVICESINDIVIDUAL EDUCATIONAL PLANSCOMMUNITY SUPPORTIN-HOME SERVICESOUT-OF-HOME SERVICESPLANNING FOR LONG-TERM NEEDSRETURNING TO SPORTS AND RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIESOUTCOMESMEASUREMENT TOOLSSURVIVALMORBIDITY BY INJURY SEVERITYConcussionsMild to Moderate InjuryModerate to Severe InjuryProfound InjuryAnoxic Brain InjuryMORBIDITY RELATED TO AGE AT TIME OF INJURYLONG-TERM OUTCOMESPREVENTIONLONG-TERM REHABILITATION FOLLOW-UPPEARLS AND PERILS18. NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASESINTRODUCTIONSPECIFIC NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASE CONDITIONSDYSTROPHIC MYOPATHIESDystrophinopathiesLimb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD)Congenital Muscular DystrophyFacioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD)Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy (EMD)CONGENITAL MYOPATHIESCentral Core MyopathyNemaline MyopathyCentronuclear (Myotubular) Myopathy (Non X-Linked)Severe X-Linked Centronuclear (Myotubular) MyopathyMinicore Disease (Multicore Disease)Congenital Fiber-Type Size DisproportionMYOTONIC DISORDERSMyotonic Muscular Dystrophy 1 (DM1)Proximal Myotonic Myopathy (PROMM; DM2)Myotonia CongenitaParamyotonia CongenitaSchwartz-Jampel Syndrome (Chondrodystrophic Myotonia)Metabolic MyopathiesMITOCHONDRIAL DISORDERSKearns-Sayre Syndrome (KSS)Myoclonus Epilepsy With Ragged-Red Fibers (MERRF)Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-Like Episodes (MELAS)Neuropathy Ataxia and Retinitis Pigmentosa (NARP)Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE)NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISORDERSTransient Neonatal MyastheniaCongenital Myasthenic SyndromesAutoimmune Myasthenia GravisInfantile BotulismNoninfantile Acquired BotulismPERIPHERAL NERVE DISORDERSAcute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (AIDP; Guillain-Barre Syndrome)Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP)Charcot-Marie-Tooth—CMT (Hereditary Motor Sensory Neuropathy)Toxic NeuropathiesMetabolic NeuropathiesMOTOR NEURON DISORDERSPredominantly Proximal Spinal Muscular AtrophySpinal Muscular Atrophy I (Werdnig-Hoffmann Disease)Spinal Muscular Atrophy IISpinal Muscular Atrophy III (Kugelberg-Welander Disease)Distal Spinal Muscular AtrophyJuvenile Segmental SMA (Benign Focal Amyotrophy; Hirayama Disease)(Fazio-Londe Disease) Progressive Bulbar Paralysis of ChildhoodSPINOCEREBELLAR DEGENERATION DISEASESFriedreich's AtaxiaOther Hereditary AtaxiasMANAGEMENT OF CHILDHOOD NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASESEXERCISE IN NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASEStrengthening Exercise in Rapidly Progressive DisordersStrengthening Exercise in Slowly Progressive Neuromuscular DiseasesAerobic Exercise in Neuromuscular DiseaseMANAGEMENT OF LIMB CONTRACTURES AND DEFORMITYBRACING/ORTHOTIC MANAGEMENT AND ORTHOPEDIC SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF LIMB DEFORMITYManagement in Neuromuscular Diseases With Proximal Weakness.Management of NMD Patients With Distal Lower Extremity WeaknessMANAGEMENT OF SPINAL DEFORMITYPROVISION OF FUNCTIONAL MOBILITYROBOTICS AND ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE UPPER LIMB FUNCTIONPULMONARY MANAGEMENTNUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENTManagement of Swallowing ProblemsEnergy and Protein SupplementationBranched-Chain Ketoacid SupplementationWeight ReductionBONE HEALTH IN NMDSMANAGEMENT OF CARDIAC COMPLICATIONS19. NEURODEGENERATIVE AND DEMYELINATING DISEASES AND OTHER CNS DISORDERSPEDIATRIC DEMYELINATING DISEASESPEDIATRIC MULTIPLE SCLEROSISEPIDEMIOLOGY OF PEDIATRIC MSCLINICAL COURSE OF PEDIATRIC MS AND DIAGNOSISTREATMENT FOR PEDIATRIC MSREHABILITATION FOR PEDIATRIC MSTRANSVERSE MYELITISEpidemiology of Transverse MyelitisClinical Course and Diagnosis of Transverse MyelitisTreatment for Transverse MyelitisRehabilitation for Transverse MyelitisNEUROMYELITIS OPTICAEpidemiology of NMOClinical Course of NMO and DiagnosisTreatment of NMORehabilitation of NMOACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITISEpidemiology of ADEMClinical Course of ADEM and DiagnosisTreatment for ADEMRehabilitation for ADEMPEDIATRIC ENCEPHALITIDESPEDIATRIC ENCEPHALITISEpidemiology of Pediatric EncephalitisClinical Course of Pediatric Encephalitis and DiagnosisTreatment of Pediatric EncephalitisRehabilitation of Pediatric EncephalitisHERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS ENCEPHALITISVARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS (VZV) ENCEPHALITISARBOVIRUS ENCEPHALITISAUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALITISAnti-NMDA Receptor EncephalitisEpidemiologyClinical Course of Pediatric Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis and DiagnosisTreatment of Anti-NMDAR EncephalitisRehabilitation of Anti-NMDAR EncephalitisLIMBIC ENCEPHALITISOPSOCLONUS MYOCLONUSRASMUSSEN'S ENCEPHALITISPEDIATRIC BRAIN TUMOR REHABILITATIONEPIDEMIOLOGYCLINICAL COURSE AND DIAGNOSIS OF PEDIATRIC BRAIN TUMORSMEDULLOBLASTOMAS AND POSTERIOR FOSSA SYNDROMETREATMENT OF PEDIATRIC BRAIN TUMORSREHABILITATION OF PEDIATRIC BRAIN TUMORSSURGICAL TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR INTRACTABLE EPILEPSYEPIDEMIOLOGYDIAGNOSIS OF INTRACTABLE EPILEPSY AND PRESURGICAL WORKUPTREATMENT OF INTRACTABLE EPILEPSYThe Ketogenic DietVagus Nerve StimulationSurgical ResectionTREATMENT OUTCOMES AND REHABILITATION20. REHABILITATION OF CHRONIC PAIN AND CONVERSION DISORDERSA. CHRONIC PAINUNDERSTANDING PAINBRIEF HISTORYPREVENTION OF CHRONIC PAINPAIN SCALESCHRONIC PAIN IN THE DEVELOPMENTALLY DELAYEDNEUROPATHIC PAIN IN CHILDRENPHANTOM LIMB PAINPOSTOPERATIVE AND TRAUMA-RELATED PAINCANCER-RELATED NEUROPATHIC PAINFABRY'S DISEASEMULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS)POSTHERPETIC NEURALGIA (PHN)RADICULOPATHYTREATMENT OF NEUROPATHIC PAIN IN CHILDRENCOMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME (CRPS)MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN IN CHILDRENPEDIATRIC FIBROMYALGIAINTERDISCIPLINARY CARE IN CHILDRENB. CONVERSION DISORDERSPATHOPHYSIOLOGYEPIDEMIOLOGYCLINICAL PRESENTATIONTREATMENT21. AGING WITH PEDIATRIC ONSET DISABILITY AND DISEASESLIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVEGENERAL KNOWLEDGE REGARDING HEALTH AND PERFORMANCEDISABILITY-SPECIFIC HEALTHCEREBRAL PALSYMortalityHealth and Quality of LifeFunctional Status and PerformancePain and FatigueMusculoskeletal and Neurologic ConditionsAdditional Health ConditionsSexual FunctioningSPINAL CORD DYSFUNCTIONSpina BifidaChildhood-Onset Spinal Cord InjuryLIMB DEFICIENCYINTELLECTUAL DISABILITIESIntellectual DisabilityDown SyndromeWilliams SyndromeCHILDHOOD CANCER AND ADULT SURVIVORSChildhood-Onset Brain CancerTRANSITIONS AND ACCESS TO HEALTH CARETRANSITION OF CARE TO ADULT SERVICESACCESS TO HEALTH CAREHEALTH AND WELLNESS AGENDASUMMARYPEARLS
 
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